Formula of Humanity as an End: never treat anyone as a means to an end, or employ ideas … Should he make a false promises to get the loan?” (Rachels, 2012). A universal law is a law that everyone must follow regardless of the outcome. First, one creates a maxim and considers whether the maxim could be a universal law for all rational … Likewise, if one person can make these maxims that include only a select group of people, so can everyone else. For example, do not kill. In this paper I will discuss several situations that I have been involved in where both the Categorical Imperative and a good will have applied to my personal experiences. The Categorical Imperative Sometimes moral actions are difficult, and perhaps in this situation it would be easier to lie to the widow, but it would still be an immoral action that I would not want everyone to do. Concept Of Goodwill In Kant’s Categorical Imperative. The requirement that one consider all of the consequences of an action and determine the best possible action through such calculations makes me reject utilitarianism as a method of determining morality. The maxim “when answering a widow’s inquiry as to the nature and duration of her late husband’s death, one should always tell the truth regarding the nature of her late husband’s death” (M1) passes both parts of the Universal Law Formation of the Categorical Imperative. In some situations, it might be better to tell the truth, and according to utilitarianism that would then be the moral action. https://schoolworkhelper.net/kants-categorical-imperative-summary-analysis/, D. L. Rosenhan’s On Being Sane in Insane Places: Summary & Analysis, Plato’s “The Republic”: Summary & Analysis, The Promise of Sociology Summary & Analysis, Descartes’ Proof Of The Existence Of God: Summary & Analysis, Descartes’ Wax Passage: Summary & Analysis, Wolves: Habitat, Characteristics, Behaviors, Mesoamerican Cultures: Olmecs, Mayas, Aztecs, William Carlos Williams & The Young Housewife, Oliver Twist: Characters, Setting, Style, Audience and Diction, Augustus’ Role in Shaping the Roman Empire, Arthur Miller’s The Crucible: Abigail Williams Analysis, Hiro Murai’s “Guava Island”: Film Analysis, Alice Dunbar Nelson: Poet, Essayist and Activist. Before I get started I would like to shed a little more light on the Categorical Imperative that Kant and others viewed as very valuable and vital if trying to understand the complexity of ethics and his moral philosophy. Reason commands one to do one's duty, but there are also rational commands dictated by what it takes to satisfy a goal. The second reason is that if rulers appeal to categorical imperative when making foreign policy decisions, the world can be more peaceful. Thus, in order to provide this stability which means that continue to stay among other states, states should act through the principles of categorical imperative which are universally valid, good intention and never using people or other states as means to end. Everyone should tell the truth however, not everyone does. That does not necessarily mean that it will pass the second test however. The categorical imperative is based around the idea to act solely for the sake of duty. ...a) Explain with examples Kant’s theory of Categorical Imperative Kant’s solution, although as interpreted by Kant is sometimes overly extreme, is much better than utilitarianism. In order to answer this question, one must use the rational “I” for the statement “I, as a rational being would will such a world,” not the specific, embodied “I” which represents you in your present condition. Kant holds that our moral duties are driven by categorical imperatives.
Whereas the hypothetical imperative is acting in order to receive some kind of reward.
Kant argues that the categorical imperative is the only good way to act. Even if it does pass the first test, narrowing down maxim can create other problems. Kantian ethics refers to a deontological ethical theory ascribed to the German philosopher Immanuel Kant.The theory, developed as a result of Enlightenment rationalism, is based on the view that the only intrinsically good thing is a good will; an action can only be good if its maxim – the principle behind it – is duty to the moral law.Central to Kant… The rules are categorical as they are universally applicable, to every person, in every situation, regardless of their personal goals an… Kant attempts to derive our moral duties from the very concept of a moral rule or moral obligation. For example, a student studies to get good grades. A hypothetical imperative is a moral obligation applicable only in pursuit of a predetermined goal. Immanuel Kant's Categorical Imperative Analysis. Your online site for school work help and homework help. In accordance with the good will aspects Kant’s claims on good will is the only thing that can be considered good without limitation. To always do good, no matter the outcome. The categorical imperative governs only those actions that require making a moral choice. He called any action based on desires a hypothetical imperative , meaning by this that it is a command of reason that applies only if one desires the goal in question. Likewise it is impossible to judge whether upon hearing the news, the widow would commit suicide. Obviously Kant is interested in categorical imperatives and uses this distinction to show the difference between them so that categorical imperatives come out stronger. Kant next develops a more technical vocabulary to account for the discoveries made in his analysis of the "common moral cognition." Consequently there is no vacillating in individual cases to determine whether an action is moral or not. Free proofreading and copy-editing included. Kant’s Categorical Imperative: Summary & Analysis Kantian philosophy outlines the Universal Law Formation of the Categorical Imperative as a method for determining morality of actions. The Third Formulation of the Categorical Imperative and Summary. The moral of Kant reads primarily in two major works: – The Metaphysics of Morals – The Critique of Practical Reason Kantsought after criticism of pure reason, to found an a priori science of behavior and morality, thus answering the question: What should I do? However, since it is absolute it means you must ignore any... ...answer the question of whether morals exist. Summary of Kants categorical imperative First, Kant presupposes that there is a moral law. Instead, it's a law that we, as rational beings, must impose on ourselves. In a situation where every widow is lied to in order to spare her feelings, then they never get the truth. Kant disagreed with Hume that morality is objective and not subjective. – Kant goes on to say that duty is the necessity to act out of reverence for a universal law. A categorical imperative applies to moral agents indep… Taking it and literally taking it to another level. Categorical Vs Hypothetical
The Categorical imperative is to act for the sake of duty only. The Categorical Imperative (NOTE: You must read only those linked materials that are preceded by the capitalized word READ.) Accordingly, the maxim passes the second test. For example, you should share your sweets because it is a good thing to do; not because it makes you feel good. Don’t make people a means to our own end. Ethics is the philosophical study of moral actions. Science Teacher and Lover of Essays. You treat a person as an end when you treat him or her with dignity that all rational beings deserve. Therefore, I consider Kant’s Universal Law Formation of the Categorical Imperative to be a better test of morality than Mill’s Utilitarianism. Hypothetical imperatives are independent of morality.
For example one should help an old … Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), the great German philosopher is one who has contributed profoundly to the world of philosophy and especially in regards to his thought on the subject of morality. Science, English, History, Civics, Art, Business, Law, Geography, all free! Therefore, even people who would consider lying to her, must concede that the correct and expected action is to tell the truth. I am willing to accept that sometimes the moral action is harder to perform, but I am unwilling to accept that morality rests within the specifics of a situation and the possible consequences. An action is moral in itself not because of its consequences but because any rational being wills it to be a universal law and it does not contradict itself. Second, one determines whether rational beings would will it to be a universal law. Finally, I will conclude that the Kant's categorical imperatives are still valid and necessary when rulers are making foreign policy decisions. Kant's moral philosophy advocates a distinctive fundamental moral principle and develops a unique system of moral principles, centring on the key terms “practical reason”, “law”, “maxim” and “categorical imperative”. I treat you with respect because that is how I would like you to treat me. Formula of Universal Law: actions must apply to everyone and always result in good. Let us do your homework! Categorical Imperative Summary Chart The categorical imperative . Kant recognized our experiences of ordinary knowledge of objects and our scientific knowledge. The next logical step is to apply the second stage of the test. 2. ATTENTION: Please help us feed and educate children by uploading your old homework! “Don’t do to anyone else what you wouldn’t want done to you”, could be looked at as the exact same thing as “do unto other as you would have them do unto you” right? For example, do not kill. The problem with this approach is that morality loses any value as a universal or intrinsic quality. Is telling her the truth then a moral action although its consequence is this terrible response? Kantian philosophy outlines the Universal Law Formation of the Categorical Imperative as a method for determining morality of actions. Perhaps the die-hard liar can regroup and test a narrower maxim. The first formulation is best described by the following statement, “Act only according to that maxim whereby you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law without contradiction.” (Kant, 1785, 1993). It is also important that one must clearly interpret exactly what the Categorical Imperative consist of before trying to administer or apply its formula to anyone. Instead one must judge in each case which action will produce the most overall happiness. It is morally OK to treat a person as a means and an end both—indeed, we … Please join StudyMode to read the full document. Kant wanted to propose a pure moral philosophy, one of absolute necessity and independent of all human feelings, because if it not so, it will not be absolute and binding upon every person. There are two particular ways of thinking regarding … He believed that unless a person freely and willingly makes a choice, then their action has no meaning much less any moral value. Consequently you many not want to will your maxim to be a universal law. Basic Terms in Kant’s Moral Philosophy. For example, take the command “Sit Down!” Kant expresses this command as an imperative by stating, “You ought to sit down!” All imperatives are formulated by doing an action according to the standard of a will that it will provide a good ending in some way. Kant recognizes that grounding morality in an externally imposed law compromises the autonomy of the will: in such a case, we act under a feeling of compulsion to a will that is not our own, and so we are not entirely accountable for our actions. Kant also thought that every man when using reason when analyzing moral dilemmas would in fact agree with what he called the Categorical Imperative. In fact, utilitarianism considers happiness to be the only intrinsically valuable end. Kant’s Categorical Imperative is made up of two formulations, Formula of Universal Law and The Formula of the End in Itself. He then begins with a series of identifications to answer how the moral law possibly gives a pure abstract form of a moral law that will ask if it is … Immanuel Kant’s Categorical Imperative “Act only on the maxim by which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law” (Groundwork,222) was said by the German philosopher Immanuel Kant. They never act on a maxim which cannot become a universal law. Kant taught that an action could only count as the action of a good will if it satisfied the test of the Categorical Imperative. For instance circumstances may change and the people who were originally included in the universal law, may not be included anymore. Immanuel Kant’s take on ethics stands out in stark contrast to the utiliarianist views of Jeremy Bentham. Kant calls these commands categorical and hypothetical imperatives, respectively. It resonates with my moral sensibilities to consider that actions are moral or immoral regardless of their immediate consequences. When we act, whether or not we reach our ends that we intend to pursue, what we control is the reason behind those actions not the consequences of those actions. The discussion Kant proposes is designed to formulate the expression of one’s action. As stated before, categorical imperatives according to Kant are moral obligations which are absolute and necessary in any moral situation and isn’t reliant on a particular person’s desires or purpose. Act according to the maxim that you would wish all other rational people to follow, as if … If the widow subsequently commits suicide or commits any other immoral act as a consequence, that has no bearing on the morality of the original action in itself. The initial stage of the Universal Law Formation of the Categorical Imperative requires that a maxim be universally applicable to all rational beings. Immanuel Kant: The Categorical Imperative: An Ethics of Duty : For Kant the basis for a Theory of the Good lies in the intention or the will. What is a categorical imperative? “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you” is a good “rule of thumb” how to live your life Godly, generalizing The Ten Commandments. If telling the widow the truth drives her to commit suicide, it seems like no rational being would will the maxim to become a universal law. The categorical imperative is not subject to any special conditions and is therefore still valid whatever the circumstances. Those acts are morally praiseworthy that are done out of a … Defenders of utilitarianism claim that it maintains universality by considering the greatest happiness of all beings, rather than just individual happiness. Telling a lie to the widow would increase her happiness and consequently would, at least possibly, be a moral action. 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